Sayram Lake: a provincial tourist attraction, the fifth batch of national scenic spots, is the highest in altitude, largest in area and most beautiful mountain lake in Xinjiang, and the last place to be visited by the warm and humid air of the Atlantic Ocean. Therefore, it is said that “the last tear of the Atlantic Ocean”. Sayram Lake, known as “Jinghai” (the Clear Sea) in ancient times, is located in the North Tianshan mountain range in Bole City, Bortala Mongol Autonomous Prefecture, Xinjiang, close to Huocheng County, Ili Kazak Autonomous Prefecture. The lake is 2071 meters above sea level, 30 kilometers long from east to west, 25 kilometers wide from south to North, with an area of 453 square kilometers, with a water storage capacity of 21 billion cubic meters. The lake water is clear and transparent, with a transparency of 12 meters.
Sayram Lake scenic area is divided into six functional areas, including scenic area around the lake, grassland nomadic style area, ecological landscape conservation area, swan and other rare bird habitat protection area, comprehensive tourism service area and original ecological environment conservation area. Three special protection areas have been determined, namely, the water body at the central core of Sayram Lake, the water habitat of the Swan wetland meadow in the West Sea, and the chagangol ice snow Ecological Exploration scenic spot. On April 13, 2018, it was shortlisted as “100 wonders in the northwest”.
Sayram Lake has many appellations: because it is the last place where the warm and humid air flow of the Atlantic last cares, it is called the last tear of the Atlantic Ocean; Sayram Lake in ancient book is also called Tianchi (the Heaven Pond). The Sayram lake is called Santai Haizi by the local people. It was named after the Ezueitubo Military Station (Santai) on the east bank of the lake in the Qing Dynasty. Sayram Lake was called “the West Sea”, Mongolian “Sayram Nur”, meaning “the lake on the ridge”, and Turkic “Sayram” means “peace”. And Sayram Lake is Kazakh, which means wish; because it is said that Sayram Lake is made up of the tears of a pair of young lovers who died for love, also known as Tianchi and Ruhai.
The average mineralization degree of the whole lake is 2853mg / L, and the total hardness is 1438mg / L, which belongs to medium and high mineralization degree water, but it is far from the adjacent Ebinur Lake. There are obvious differences in the plane distribution of lake water salinity. The northwest of the lake is 2768mg / L, the center of the lake is 3071mg / L, and the southeast of the lake is 3109mg / L. The difference of low mineralization degree in the northwest and high mineralization degree in the southeast is formed. The reason for this special distribution is that the water area in the north of the west of the lake is close to chagangol, the largest ditch in the west of the lake, and the low mineralized alpine snow water is diluted into the lake area. Since 2010, due to the influence of warm and humid climate, the amount of water entering the lake has increased, and the mineralization degree and main ions have decreased (except HCO ⁻ 3). The increase of carbonate content indicates that the lake water is desalinated, and the lake is in the reverse evolution stage.
Syaram Lake is like a brilliant sapphire hanging in the rift basin between the Western Tianshan Mountains, surrounded by mountains and matched by the sky and water. Every year in winter, the snow here is surging and freezing, a little oval lake, inlaid in the iceberg and snow field, just like a piece of white and soft silk padded with a huge crystal Pei Cui. In spring and summer, there are clear forests, deep grass, numerous flowers, and vast grasslands, with little curtains, smoke curling, countless cattle and sheep, and galloping horses, which constitute a rough and far-reaching pastoral scenery painting. The pair of swans, geese and wild ducks, which are playing on the sparkling green waves, add the artistic conception of the idyllic poetry to this thick and colorful scroll painting. The traditional Mongolian festival “Nadam” held by the lakeside in July every year, which integrates the great achievements of grassland culture, often impresses tourists.
Sayram Lake is a national scenic place, National Wetland Park and 4A level tourist attraction. The scenic area is divided into six functional areas, including scenic area around the lake, grassland nomadic area, ecological landscape conservation area, swan and other rare bird habitat protection area, tourism comprehensive service area, and original ecological environment conservation area. Three special protection areas have been determined, namely, the water body at the central core of Sayram Lake, the water habitat of the Swan wetland meadow in the West Sea, and the chagangol ice snow Ecological Exploration scenic spot. It is divided into eight scenic spots, i.e. chaganguole ice snow Ecological Exploration scenic spot, Saibei grassland historical and cultural scenic spot, and Xihai grassland style area. Around the road around the lake, nine tourist spots, including Santai ancient post, Tianhu ancient pass, Santai grassland, film and television city and dianjiangtai, have also been planned.