The E Pang palace was built in the 35th year of the first emperor of Qin Dynasty (212 BC), 15 km away from the western suburb of Xi’an City, Shaanxi Province, and 15 km southeast of Xianyang city. E Pang palace, known as “the first palace in the world”, is the first unified multi-ethnic centralized state in Chinese history, the new imperial palace built by Qin Empire. Together with the Great Wall, Qinshihuang Mausoleum and qinzhidao, it is called “the four major projects of Qinshihuang”. They are the first unified landmark buildings in China, and they are also the physical signs formed by the Chinese nation. The site extends to the West Bank of Zaohe River in the east, Jiyang village in Chang’an District in the west, Heping Village and dongaoli in the south, chezhang village and houweizhai in the north, with a total area of 15 square kilometers.
Cishimen is one of the palaces of E Pang palace in Qin Dynasty. The door of Qin E Pang palace is made of magnetite. On the one hand, it is used to prevent assassins, so that those with concealed armor and sword can not pass through when entering the gate, thus protecting the emperor’s safety; the second is to show the magical function of the front hall of Qin E Pang palace to frighten the pilgrims. The exact position of the magnet gate has always been different. Sanfu Jiushi refers to the north gate of the E Pang palace, Yonglu refers to the west gate of the E Pang palace, and Sanfu Huangtu refers to the gate of the front hall of the E Pang palace. According to “Xi’an local Chronicles · Chang’an Dictionary of Han Dynasty”, the site of cishimen is located in Shuanglou Village (now Shuanglou temple in Sanqiao town) southeast of Xianyang In the 1990s, a rammed soil layer was found in the north of the E Pang Palace site in Sanqiao town (now in the Technical College of the Chinese people’s Armed Police Force). The cultural relics department speculated that this site may be the site of cishimen in Qin Dynasty, and there are protection signs for the site.
The reason why E Pang A Cheng has “walls on three sides and no walls on the South” is related to the construction techniques and political situation. From the engineering point of view, it is an important principle to arrange reasonably and improve the time limit. Building “a city” is one of the contents of the design. The first three walls are not only the previous process of “E Pang”, but also convenient for site management. “There is no wall in the South” lies in leaving the passage for personnel and materials. When the “front hall of E Pang” was built and the gate que was completed, the south wall was built. But soon because of the cruelty of the Qin Dynasty, the Qin Dynasty perished, and the E Pang palace project was abandoned, so there was no south wall. In the 1950s, local farmers took soil from the northern part of the Palace site, and excavated architectural relics such as cloud tiles, slab tiles, residual bricks, stone column foundation and pottery and water pipes. Archeologists have also visited many times and found the same situation, indicating that there were buildings in the north of the base site of the front hall. The archaeological team drilled on the East, North and West edges of the platform foundation, and found the Wall Relics, which confirmed the historical existence of “A Cheng”.
Qin E Pang palace is not only the most magnificent palace group in the architecture of Qin Dynasty, but also the representative work of ancient Chinese palace architecture. It also records the history of the Chinese nation from dispersion to unity, bearing the glorious memory of Chinese civilization. In 1992, UNESCO made an on-the-spot investigation and confirmed that the architectural scale and preservation integrity of Qin E Pang Palace site ranked first among the world’s ancient buildings, and it was one of the world’s wonders and famous sites.
At the same time, in a sense, the E Pang palace is also a symbol of Qin’s demise. Zhou Tianyou, chairman of the Chinese Society for the study of Qin and Han history and former director of the Shaanxi Provincial Museum, believes that E Pang palace is the concentrated embodiment of Qin values. Different from the introversion of Confucianism, Qin’s values were outward expansion, pursuing the ultimate in everything. The emperor’s Palace should be large, the capital should be large, and the territory should be large. Moreover, all the human, material and financial resources of the whole country should be mobilized to serve the central government (the emperor), which was extremely wasteful. The Qin Empire did establish many successive systems in a short period of time, but it also exceeded the social affordability of that time.
It is said that King Ying Zheng of Qin fell in love with a beautiful folk woman named E Pang, but this beautiful love did not bring about a beautiful ending. In order to commemorate the woman he loved deeply, Qin Shihuang spared no effort to build an extremely luxurious E Pang palace. Ten years later, Xiang Yu, king of Chu, entered the pass to overthrow the tyranny of the Qin Dynasty. He was very angry when he heard that his concubine Yu Ji was captured , burned down the house of E Pang. The fire burned for three months, and it was a hundred miles away.