Sun Yat Sen Mausoleum is located in the Zhongshan landscape scenic spot of Zijingshan Mountain, Xuanwu district, Nanjing city. It includes Sun Yet Sen Mausoleum and its affiliated memorial buildings. Mr. Sun is a great pioneer of Chinese democratic revolution, whose whole mausoleum covers more than 80 thousand square meters and started in the spring of 1926 and finished in the summer of 1929. Lv Yanzhi, the main designer of the project, put the main buildings on a central axis. The shape of the whole mausoleum is like a big bell. Its top is a square like a half moon at the foot of the mountain. On the south of the square, the Ding platform (It is now a standing statue of Dr. Sun Yat Sen) is the bell button of the bell, and the bell hammer is a hemispherical vault. “Ding” represented rights in ancient ages, so the whole bell has the meaning of “Wakening people to create a democratic country”.
Zhongshan Road is originally Yingjiu Road, where Mr. Sun’s coffin went south, and it is the first asphalt road in Nanjing. Getting to the square along this towering Boulevard, people see the stone archway with three doors on the south of the tomb passage, on which two characters “BO AI” written by Dr. Sun Yat Sen。These buildings like archway are mainly used to eulogize someone’s virtues and achievements for their functions. The character “Bo Ai” represents Dr. Sun Yat Sen’s broad mind and lofty ideal. On the front square of the archway, there is a standing statue of Dr. Sun Yat Sen with swinging gestures, just like he is making a speech about the fate of the country. There is a tomb passage with length of 375 meters and width of 40 meters behind the archway. In front, there is a tomb gate decorated with blue glazed tiles, and on the forehead of the gate was the handwriting of Dr. Sun Yat Sen, “commerce.” Here, the blue glazes tiles show this meaning, and it reflects Dr. Sun Yat Sen’s broad mind for the country and their people. Going further, there is a pavilion, where a six-meter high tombstone is and which is engraved with gold-plated characters: “on June 1, the 18th year of the Republic of China, the Kuomintang buried Mr. Sun here.” Through the pavilion, there are steep stone steps, which are divided into eight stages, including 392 steps. It is difficult to climb so many steps, but you will understand the related meaning” The revolution has not yet succeeded, and all people still need to work hard” when finishing this long- and-steep step way.
In the middle of the sacristy, there is a sitting statue of Dr. Sun Yat Sen, which was carved by the famous foreign sculptor Paul Andes in Paris in 1930. Dr. Sun Yat Sen’s revolution achievements are caved around the basis of the statue. In the black marble walls around the memorial hall are engraved with “Fundamentals of National Reconstruction” written by Sun Yat Sen and “Premier’s will” written by Hu Hanmin and others. Here, it shows not only Dr. Sun Yat Sen’s immortal feats and arduous struggle to overthrow the feudal monarchy for more than 2000 years, but also Dr. Sun Yat Sen’s thought of founding a nation for China’s independence, prosperity and great ambition. Behind the sacristy, there is a bronze door, four characters “Imperishable Noble Spirit” is on its top, which was also written by Dr. Sun Yat Sen. The bell-like tomb chamber is indoor, in the middle of which there is a round marble cavity with diameter of 4 meters and depth of 5 meters. Dr. Sun Yat Sen’s white marble coffin and lying figure are placed in it. Mourners can look down on the lying figure on the coffin. After entering the tomb, all the mourners naturally bow to pay attention to the lying statue. This figure was created by the Czech sculptor Gao Qi according to his remains, which is very realistic. Although Dr. Sun Yat Sen passed away from the world for a long time, he was always respected by the world.
Dr. Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum is integrated with Chinese and Western architectural styles. The majestic situation of Zhongshan Mountain, together with various memorial archways, mausoleum gates, stele pavilions, memorial halls and tombs, is connected into a large whole through a large green space and broad sky-connecting steps. It is very solemn and majestic, with profound implications and grand momentum. The design is very successful, so it is known as “The first mausoleum in modern Chinese architectural history”.
In addition, near the mausoleum, there are also some figures of the modern democratic revolution period, such as Sun Yat Sen’s close comrades in arms and politicians of National Party. In 1928, the national government decided to rebuild the cemetery for officers and soldiers of the National Revolutionary Army on the site of Linggu Temple in the east of Dr. Sun Yat Sen Mausoleum, and to build more memorial archways, memorial halls and memorial towers. In the memorial hall rebuilt from the Wuliang Hall of Linggu Temple, the names and ranks of officers and soldiers who died in the Northern Expedition and the Anti- Japanese war were engraved. According to the calculation, there were 10 steles with more than 33,000 names. At the northern foot of Zhongshan Mountain, there is a solemn aviation martyr cemetery. On the tombstone are the names of 3,306 martyrs from China, the United States and the Soviet Union who died for the sake of Anti-Japanese war.