Jiayugua Pass is located in the middle of the narrowest valley 5 km west of Jiayuguan City, Gansu Province. The pcity walls on both sides of the pass cross the desert, connecting the Great Wall of Heishan in the north and the First Pier in China in the south. It is the gateway of the western end of the Great Wall of the Ming Dynasty. It was once called Throat of Hexi in history. Because of the dangerous terrain and majestic architecture, it is called the key to the border. Jiayuguan Pass is the ancient “Silk Road” traffic fortress, one of the three wonders of the Great Wall of China (Shanhaiguan Pass in the East, Zhenbeitai Platform in the middle and Jiayuguan Pass in the West).
The western part of Gansu Province is already a desert area. Hexi Corridor is located between the towering Qilian Mountain and Beishan Mountains (including Mazong mountain, Heli mountain and Longshou mountain), with a length of about 1000 km from east to west. An ancient road runs through the Gobi and alluvial plain at the foot of Qilian Mountain, which is the ancient “Silk Road”. The road is very difficult to pass, but at the pass of Jiayu mountain, the narrow valley passes through the mountain and the dangerous slope forces the road, so it is more difficult to pass. Jiayuguan Pass is located here, and makes the situation dangerous for enemies. It connects Suzhou (today’s Jiuquan) in the east and Anxi in the west, which is the link between Chang’an and the western regions.
The inner city of Jiayuguan is wide in the west and narrow in the east, slightly trapezoidal in shape, with a height of 9 meters. Outside the door are built urn city with symmetrical city towers which have three floors, three eaves and five rooms. It is surrounded by a corridor and a single eaves. It is 17 meters high. There are turrets in the four corners of the city, and defensing towers in the middle of the southern and northern walls. There are three rooms on one floor with a front porch. In the north of the two gates there is a horse road to the top of the city.
Jiayuguan Pass is the starting point of the western end of the Great Wall in Ming Dynasty. It is the most spectacular and well preserved ancient military Castle along the Great Wall. It is also an important military fortress along the Great Wall in Ming Dynasty and its later generations. It is known as “the great defense at home and abroad” and “the first pass in Hexi”.
The pass city of Jiayuguan Pass is close to mountains and rivers, guarding the canyon area about 15 kilometers wide from north to south. The Taolai river valley in the south of the gorge also forms a natural barrier. There are 66 piers and abutments in the East, West, South, North and northeast of Jiayuguan. Jiayuguan is a natural terrain with both attack and defense. It forms a strict military defense system with the nearby Great Wall, platforms, trenches, beacon towers and other facilities. It is also known as “the first majestic pass in the world.”
Jiayuguan is a world cultural heritage, a national AAAAA tourist attraction, a national key cultural relics protection unit, and a national patriotism education demonstration base. The main scenic spots include Jiayuguan pass city, the hanging wall, the first pier of the Great Wall, tombs of the Wei and Jin Dynasties, Heishan stone carvings, Mulan City, “July 1” glacier, gliding base, etc.
During the international gliding festival held in Jiayuguan City, the municipal government held a grand “antique customs pass-leaving ceremony” in Jiayuguan City. The main content of the ceremony was that the guests dressed in ancient military officers and soldiers’ clothes, and imitated the situation of ancient soldiers when they left the pass in Jiayuguan.